Recently Vina Vuon received the question “what is nozzle?” from many customers. Today Vina Vuon would like to answer questions for customers through the article below.
What is nozzle?
Nozzle is a device used to change the properties of a flow such as: velocity, direction, shape, flow… It is designed with many different shapes and materials, depending on the intended use.
For example, if the nozzle is used in a situation where high pressure is required such as a fire hydrant, it will be made of metal and has a truncated shape, while in the case of a corrosive environment such as a sewage water system. The nozzle will be made from high-quality plastic and has a wide mouth to discharge water faster, without being clogged with dirt. It is usually mounted at the end of the pipe, is a direct water consumption device (different from the water transmission device, which is the pipe, and the water supply device, which is the storage tank). Each standard designed nozzle has clear specifications, based on which we can calculate the number and the type used for our water system.
Types of nozzles used in irrigation systems
In an automatic irrigation system, the sprinkler is a direct consumer of water, installed at the end of the pipe, but it is not called a nozzle. The reason is that the structure of the sprinkler has many components: the part connected to the pipe, the body to fix the sprinkler and finally the nozzle. So in this case what it is? It is a part of the sprinkler. Each sprinkler can change many different types to suit the irrigation area. In some special cases, a drip irrigation with a non-removable attached nozzle can be viewed as a type of it. Below are some common types in irrigation systems.
Used for a rotary sprinkler
Nozzle for rotary sprinkler is the one that sprays a jet of water. The characteristics of this nozzle are low flow, high pressure, and large spray radius. Thanks to the above characteristics, this nozzle-mounted sprinkler system will save investment costs thanks to the use of low-power pumps, valves and small pipes.
There are two types of rotary sprinklers: fixed sprinklers and pop-up sprinklers. Nozzles of fixed sprinklers are usually very small, about 2-3 types with different specifications and are not included with each sprinkler; and pop-up sprinklers have more diverse nozzles and are included with each sprinkler, the most common type is the Rotor 94161 sprinkler with 10 different nozzles, with radius parameters from 7m-15m.
Used for a spray sprinkler
This one has a nozzle that creates a circular water film around the sprinkler, their characteristics are large flow, medium pressure and a maximum radius of 5m. The biggest advantage of this type is that it helps the irrigation system to supply enough water to the plants in a short time, saving operating costs and increasing the life of the entire system because of the reduced operating time each watering. The type of nozzle used for only one type of sprinkler is pop-up spray, they have the ability to change the spray angle and the water flow will change according to the size of the spray angle, the larger the angle, the greater the flow. Each pop-up spray will have many types of nozzles for it, the manufacturer will provide separate models so that we can combine with the nozzle body accordingly.
Used for a hose watering
People often consider a hose watering as a type of nozzle because they themselves have a monolithic, non-removable structure. We have two types here:
• The first type has a nozzle structure that increases water velocity, the water jet sprays strongly and can be adjusted to focus the water jet into a straight line of high pressure or the water jet spreads out like a film of water. This puzzle is compact. Easy to use, the main function is to spray and wash pests and planthoppers on plants.
• The second type is a large nozzle, consisting of many small nozzles on it, each one will spray a specific design such as: misting, jet spraying, beam spraying, creating 90-degree film, discharging water flow. large… We can choose the desired spray mode by rotating the nozzle, although it is large, this type is very popular, often used to water different plants in a garden.
Speed increasing nozzle
When using a water pipe to water plants every day, perhaps you can realize that when you squeeze the top of the water pipe, the water will spray farther and stronger, this is also one of the main purposes that the nozzle is created. Nozzle speed increase function to increase the speed of water spewing out based on the principle of flow:
Flow = Velocity x Wet cross-sectional area
The wet cross-sectional area is the cross-sectional area of the pipe through which water flows, this area is different from the pipe cross-section if considered in the case of a drainage pipe because water is not always fully flowing in the pipe, and in the case of a drainage pipe. The case we are considering here is the water supply pipe, so we can consider the wet cross-sectional area as the cross-section of the pipe.
According to the flow calculation formula, we can see that the flow velocity and the wet cross-sectional area are inversely proportional, so to increase the flow velocity, we only need to reduce the wet cross-sectional area (in the case of This case is the cross-section of the pipe). The simplest nozzle has the shape of a truss pyramid with 2 bottoms of 2 circles, one large and one small, the large bottom will be attached to the pipe and the small bottom is where the water is sprayed out, thus narrowing the cross-section to meet the most basic function of helping the water jet to spray stronger and farther.
Increasingly, the nozzle is improved more and more so that the sprayed water can achieve the highest speed. To do this, the researchers sought to reduce the pressure loss inside the nozzle to a minimum. There are two main causes of pressure loss inside it: friction between the water and the nozzle material, and the resistance of the water when changing the flow section suddenly. In order to reduce the friction between the water and the material, the inner surface of the nozzle has been processed very finely, every line is very smooth, in addition to using non-admixed materials to reduce the roughness of the material.
The length of the nozzle is usually very short, so the different cross-sections of the outlet and inlet of the nozzle will cause the flow to fall into the case of sudden cross-sectional changes and turbulent flow occurs, this turbulent flow will obstruct the direction of the water and reduce the water velocity. This situation has been handled by installing thin longitudinal plates inside the pipe wall to direct the flow in the direction of its outlet.
Shaping nozzle will change the shape and spray pattern of the water stream such as: small water jet, rotating water jet, multiple water jets, water film, multi-layer water, mist particles, drip, propeller-shaped water film , flower bud-shaped water film…
To be able to create nozzles with such unique functions, people rely on the following 3 main methods:
• Changing the structure: is the method applied to 2 nozzles to create a rotating and dripping water jet. To be able to create a rotating water jet, people make a nozzle with a curved and twisted shape, when the water is sprayed, it will create a reverse reaction into the nozzle and make it rotate. For the drip type, it will be done by shrinking the path inside the nozzle and increasing the length of that water path, the water flow into it will be reduced at maximum speed and drip when leaving the nozzle.
• Increase the number of nozzles: this is a very simple way, we can imagine it like integrating many small ones into a large one, each small one will spray a jet of water and the large one will form a beam of water, a good example is a shower.
• Change the nozzle outlet shape: When applying this method, we must machine the nozzle carefully and check the operability many times to ensure that the water sprayed has the same shape as the original desire. If there is a mistake in the production process, the water flow will be turbulent, have no definite shape or appear small unexpected water jets.
Another type that is also commonly used is the nozzle installed on the suction pipe of a liquid or gas stream. We can see in the suction mouths of ventilation pipes, vacuum cleaners, pumps… The feature of this type of nozzle is that it provides flow for the pipeline but does not require high pressure, so the nozzle mouth is usually wider than the pipe (except in the case of a vacuum cleaner, because the vacuum cleaner does not allow hard objects). enter the chamber). Some suction ones have a built-in one-way navigation device so that the air or liquid does not slip back out.
Utilities of nozzle
• Increase water speed is often applied in jobs such as: fire fighting, irrigation, car cleaning, house cleaning, water pumping…
• Shaping ones is used a lot for: irrigation, artistic watering for aquariums or fountains.
• Nozzle suction is often found in vent pipes, gas pipes, pipes that suck water from ponds and lakes, vacuum cleaners, air purifiers…
Benefit of using nozzle
• Save a huge amount of water in work and daily life.
• Turn a stream of water into a beautiful work of art.
• Achieve irrigation goals on large areas with little effort.
So the question has been answered in quite detail. If you have more questions about the article, you can contact Vina Vuon at +84931 820 850.
Frequently asked questions
According to function nozzle, there are 3 main types: Increase speed, for shaping, for inlet.
The types of nozzle commonly used in irrigation systems are nozzles for rotating sprinklers, nozzles for spreading sprinklers and hose watering.
Save a huge amount of water in work and daily life. Turn water flow into a beautiful work of art. Achieve the purpose of irrigating large areas without much effort.
There are two types of nozzle for hand-held sprinklers: a nozzle with multiple modes and a nozzle with the ability to adjust the water jet.
There are 3 main methods including: changing the nozzle structure, increasing the number of nozzles, changing the outlet shape.