What is sprinkler?

Sprinkler is one of the main components of an automatic irrigation system, which has the function of creating a jet of water or a curtain of water sprayed directly on the plants. The sprinklers have a variety of spray patterns and structures to suit different types of plants, and are connected to a plumbing system and a timer to perform automatic irrigation.

Structures

Nozzle: The part that directly sprays the water jets, usually located at the top of the sprinkler so that the water jets are not obstructed and helps the spray distance to reach the optimal level when operating.

Body: Located in the middle, acts as a pipe to carry water from the outside to the nozzle, while protecting and holding the sprinkler.

Connector: Is the connection between the sprinkler nozzle and the external water pipe, usually has a threaded or barb structure and is located at the end of the sprinkler.

Bec tuoi cay phun mua AntelcoSpray sprinkler 90 degrees with adjustment Antelco

The best types of sprinkler

Spray and rotor sprinkler

Pop-up sprinkler Rotor 55169 (21mm female thread) Orbit

– Origin: Orbit (USA)

– Operating pressure: 2.1 bar – Operating radius: 5 – 9m

– Operating flow: 200 – 700 liters/hour

– Operating angle: 0 – 360 degrees

– Connect to 21mm male thread / LDPE pipe – PVC – HDPE

– Material: High quality plastic

Pop-up sprinkler Rotor 55169 (21mm female thread) Orbit

Rotor Max sprinkler (male thread 21mm) Antelco

– Origin: Antelco (Australia)

– Operating pressure: 1.5 bar – Operating radius: 7.5m

– Operating flow: 500 liters/hour

– Operating angle: 360 degrees

– Connect to 21mm PVC pipe

– Material: High quality plastic

Video of Rotor Max sprinkler (male thread 21mm) Antelco

Drippers

Pressure compensating Asta 2 lph dripper (4mm barb ) Antelco

– Origin: Antelco (Australia)

– Operating pressure: 1.0 bar – Operating radius: N/A

– Operating flow: 2 liters/hour

– Operating angle: N/A

– Connect to 4mm barb / LDPE pipe

– Material: High quality plastic

Pressure compensating Asta 2 lph dripper (4mm barb ) Antelco

Shrubbler dripper (4mm male thread) Antelco

– Origin: Antelco (Australia)

– Operating pressure: 1.5 bar – Operating radius: 0 – 0.2m

– Operating flow: 0 – 33 liters/hour

– Operating angle: 360 degrees

– Connect to 4mm female thread / LDPE pipe – PVC

– Material: High quality plastic

Mist sprinkler

Mist Jet mist sprinkler Antelco

– Origin: Antelco (Australia)

– Operating pressure: 1.5 bar – Operating radius: 2.4m

– Operating flow: 78 liters / hour

– Operating Spray: 90 degrees

– Connect to LDPE – PVC – HDPE – PPR pipes

– Material: High quality plastic grade

Classification

Classification by type of watering

Drip: provides water at one point, has a small flow rate and requires low operating pressure. Drip irrigation saves water, does not cause soil erosion and limits the development of pests and diseases.

See also: What is drip irrigation? When to use a drip irrigation system

Shrubbler dripper

Spray and rotor: create an even water curtain or a rotating jet of high flow, requiring high operating pressure to cover fully. The amount of water that the sprinkler nozzle provides is very large, so it can be arranged in a small quantity to save costs and installation time for large areas. Like artificial rain, that watering also helps the garden become fresher.

See also: What is sprinkler irrigation? When to use a sprinkler irrigation system

Pop-up sprinkler Rotor 55169

Mist: there are small, fine water droplets that diffuse evenly in the air to maintain humidity. The feature of the mist is that it requires high pressure to be able to create small, low-flow mist particles to save water and still provide enough moisture for plants.

See also: What is a mist sprinkler? When to use misting system

Green Mist mist sprinkler

Classification by structure

Thread structure

This is the most common type of structure in the mechanical field because it can be applied to most materials, therefore it is understandable when it is used for automatic irrigation systems. Thread has the shape of alternating convex and concave spirals of equal size. There are two types of thread: male thread and female thread.

To be able to connect two objects with thread structure, each object must have the opposite thread type, one is male thread, the other is female thread. For example, if your sprinkler has an male thread structure, a female thread fitting is needed to connect the pipe. Besides, not only do you need to have opposite thread types, but also have the same size to be able to make thread connections. The most commonly used thread sizes are: 4mm, 21mm, 27mm, 34mm.

A note when using thread connector is to wrap a layer of silk tape around the male thread object, this action is simple and inexpensive, but it is very effective in avoiding water leakage.

Barb structure

There are sprinklers that are installed with a simple connection, which saves time due to the barb structure. Merely a round ridge larger than the size of the pipe, the barbs will help secure the nozzle to the pipe and can suffer high water pressure. The way to link these sprinklers is simply to push the barbed end straight into the pipe, without using any more glue or any bonding additives, so they become a special type of structure. It is commonly used in automatic irrigation systems. 

Note that barb can only be used for flexible hoses, as the elasticity of the tube will help the tube adhere to the barb. The size of the barbs will depend on the size of the flexible hose: 4mm, 16mm, 20mm…

Classification by body type

Fixed body

Is the type of sprinkler that is installed on the ground as we usually see. During operation, the body of the sprinkler will be stationary, so it should be classified as fixed. They are used a lot in large-scale orchards when the homeowner wants to spray irrigation for the garden. In addition, fixed-body sprinklers are also available with pins to the ground to water small areas.

Pop-up body

Is the most advanced type of sprinkler today. Its spray pattern is actually rain spray, but the body has a special structure that automatically rises from the ground when operating, so it is called a pop-up. To ensure the aesthetics of the garden, people often use pop-up sprinklers. When installing the sprinkler will be buried below the ground, the large spring inside the nozzle will keep the core still and when the irrigation system works, the water pressure will overcome the compression force of the spring, helping the core (including nozzles) that protrude from the ground to water plants. Most pop-up sprinklers can change the spray angle and radius, making it the perfect choice for lawns in public areas where high aesthetics are required.

Bec tuoi pop upA popular pop-up sprinkler

Specifications

Operating radius

This is a parameter that most people are interested in because it is related to the size of the garden and the layout of the watering pipes. When the sprinkler works, the water jets will form a circle of water with a defined radius. The coverage of the sprinkler is expressed in terms of its spray radius (in meters (m)). The drip irrigation has the smallest spray radius, followed by the mist irrigation and finally the spray irrigation, but in each type of sprinkler, there are also different distances, the most common form ranging from 1m – 15m. We often rely on the size of the irrigation area to choose the radius of the sprinkler and arrange the appropriate number of sprinklers for the garden.

However, in order for the sprinkler to achieve the desired radius, we need to pay attention to the next two factors.

Operating flow

Each planter has a different flow parameter, this parameter tells us how much water the sprinkler can provide in a certain period of time (an hour or a minute). The unit used to measure flow is m3/hour or liter / minute. For example: 2 liters of drip irrigation per hour will provide 2 liters of water for plants within an hour. In terms of irrigation types, drip irrigation is the irrigation method with the smallest water flow, followed by mist irrigation, and the largest is spray irrigation. Two main reasons why we should care about the flow of the sprinkler: 

  • To determine the right sprinkler for the type of crop and calculate the time to water the plants.
  • To calculate the pipe diameter,size solenoid valve and capacity water pump.

Operating pressure

The pressure of the sprinkler is a parameter that shows the ability to withstand water and the stability in the operation of the sprinkler. The unit commonly used to determine the pressure of a sprinkler is bar or kg/cm2. For example, a sprinkler with a pressure of 1 – 4 bar means it will work well in that pressure range. Operating pressure is closely related to the operating flow and radius, because the greater the pressure, the more water the nozzle will spray and the farther the radius is. Operating pressure also represents the safety of the sprinkler. If the pressure of the irrigation system exceeds the allowable level, the sprinkler will quickly fail, so we often rely on pressure parameters to determine the appropriate capacity for the pump.

In an automatic irrigation system, the operating pressure in the pipeline will gradually decrease as it flows through equipment such as solenoid valves, pumps, filters, accessories… Therefore, we must know the necessary pressure at the sprinkler to calculate the pressure required at the head of the water source.

Examples:

Below are the specifications of the pop-up sprinkler spray 54117L – Orbit – USA:

Thong so ky thuat cua bec tuoi orbit 54117LSpecifications of the pop-up sprinkler spray 54117L – Orbit – USA

Specifically, the parameters in the first row tell us when the sprinkler has angle 360 ​​degrees and at a pressure of 1.0 bar, the sprinkler will have an operating radius of 4.3m and a flow rate of 0.62 m3/h.

Advantages of sprinkler compared to faucet

Saving: There are many different types of sprinklers suitable for each type of plant, so the volume of water will be used more efficiently. According to statistics, switching from manual irrigation to automatic irrigation will save 70% of the volume of water per month.

Save time and effort: Once we have an automatic watering system, obviously we no longer have to drag the faucet to each tree to water. Besides, the sprinkler when operating will work at the same time, thus shortening the daily watering time.

Aesthetics: No longer appear zigzag pipes in your garden, the watering nozzle brings a very high aesthetic due to its many colors, diverse spray patterns, helping to increase the value of the garden.

Comfortable when far from home: You have to go on a business trip and don’t have time to take care of plants? Already have an automatic watering system to do it for you. There’s nothing better than coming home from a long trip and seeing your garden still green and healthy.

Increase the value of the garden: Now the image of the watering nozzles that we often encounter in high-class urban areas has appeared in your own home. The automatic irrigation system also brings interesting experiences with advanced technology in the world such as controlling watering by phone, operating according to rain sensor or humidity sensor, etc.

Helps plants grow well: Different from manual irrigation methods, the sprinkler provides the plant with a steady and adequate amount of water. There will be no more forgetting to water plants or forget to turn off the faucet causing waterlogging in the garden. This is extremely important for large-scale projects and plants with strict requirements for irrigation such as orchids, roses, melons, etc.

Bec tuoi phun mua AntelcoAntelco sprinkler (Australia)

Application of each type Drip

Dripper

Dripper is often used for narrow locations, with a width of less than 50cm such as flower beds, green fences, plant beds, vegetable beds… Potted plants, stumps, pictures, etc. Tree walls and individual plants are also suitable for drip nozzles.

Spray sprinkler

Spray sprinkler is widely used for densely planted areas such as lawns, miniature clusters, vegetable gardens, etc. Large-scale areas such as orchards, factories, farms, etc. Farms and greenhouses also often use that nozzle to save costs and installation time. 

Mist sprinkler

Mist sprinkler is often used to water orchids, the reason is because orchids need to be supplied with enough moisture continuously with fine and small water droplets (because orchid branches are very weak, so cannot withstand large water droplets). Similarly, we can use misting nozzles for plants such as sprouts, seedlings, nurseries, flowers, etc.

Thread sprinkler

Thread sprinklers are often used when:

  • Install an irrigation system with rigid pipes such as PVC, HDPE, PPR…
  • Mount the sprinklers at positions over 1m high like in orchards.
  • Renovate the old automatic irrigation system, because the flexible thread structure can be linked to many different types of pipes.

Barb sprinkler

The sprinkler with barb structure can be linked with flexible pipes, so they are often used in small areas, difficult installation space and locations where pipes need to be bent to create aesthetics. This is the typical structure of drip irrigation nozzles, so it is often applied to evenly spaced plant beds and rows of trees, saving construction time.

Pop-up sprinkler 

That sprinkler is a type of spray sprinkler, but due to its high aesthetics and large spray radius, we often see pop-up sprinklers installed in large lawns or fields. where there are many people passing by such as resorts, parks, golf courses, football fields…

Villa house sprinkler irrigation system

Criteria for choosing a sprinkler

You can choose a sprinkler suitable for your garden based on the characteristics and applications that Vina Vuon has given above. To make the selection easier, you can refer to the following questions: 

The daily water requirement of the plant being grown more or less?

  • Some plants only need very little water to live, such as porcelain, aloe vera, tiger tongue, etc. There are even plants that have to stop watering to flower like bougainvillea. These plants need to use drip irrigation to avoid waterlogging. 

What is the density of the plants?

  • If your garden hase dense plants such as lawns, vegetable gardens, flower bushes, etc., you should use sprinkler nozzles to ensure that water can cover each location, saving the number of sprinklers and work easier.

Does the plant need moisture or irrigation on the leaves?

  • It is recommended to use mist or spray sprinkler for those that need moisture and a cool environment such as orchids and roses.

Is the stem sturdy or soft?

  • If the plants are soft and susceptible to damage such as orchids, roses, sprouts, seedlings … then absolutely do not use watering nozzles with strong water jets to spray directly on the trunk. In this case, mist or drip irrigation can be used to irrigate.

Is the installation location of the sprinkler high or low level?

  • If you have to install it on high, you should choose the sprinklers with compact size, easy to install structure like a barb.

Is the sprinkler mounted floating or buried in the soil to create aesthetics?

  • The pop-up sprinkler is the only sprinkler suitable for underground installation. If you have a large lawn and often move around a lot, you should choose a pop-up sprinkler for your garden.

How much does it cost to invest in a sprinkler?

  • Drip irrigation is usually cheaper than other types. Depending on the characteristics of the garden, we choose the most economical sprinkler. If you plant too many plants, many pots in a small space, it is unlikely that the drip irrigation method can save much money on the spray or misting method.

What kind of material is the pipe designed for the irrigation system?

  • Knowing the type of pipe helps us to choose the right structure of the sprinkler. Some sprinklers have many different types of connections for us to choose from, such as threaded type for PVC and HDPE pipes and barb type used for LDPE flexible pipes.

What is the current water pressure used to supply the garden?

  • If the current pressure of the water source is too low, using drip irrigation is the most optimal solution, other types of sprinklers without enough pressure will not work well. Therefore, to be able to use sprays and misters, we need to install a booster pump for the irrigation system.

Does the sprinkler need to apply the growing demand of the plant every day?

  • If planting trees from a young age, the demand for water will increase gradually as the tree grows, so it is necessary to use sprinklers that can adjust the water flow, so there will be no cost to replace the nozzle of irrigation during plant growth.

Bec tuoi phun muaThe type of sprinkler irrigation is suitable for places with a high density of plants.

Instructions for installing the sprinkler

After determining the installation location, there are two basic steps to apply to all types of sprinklers:

Step 1: Connecting to the pipe

  • Determine the connector of the sprinkler
  • If the connector is thread, see if it is a female or a male thread, the sizes are 4mm, 21mm, 27mm or 34mm. Select the appropriate type of attachment, then wrap the anti-rust silk glue clockwise around the outer thread end and screw in the sprinkler to bond to the hose.
  • If the connector has a barb structure, punch or drill a hole of sufficient size in the wall of the pipe and press the sprinkler tip firmly into the pipe.

Step 2: Fixing the sprinkler

  • These types of sprinklers have plugs available, which will be pinned straight into the ground with just enough depth so that the sprinklers do not wobble or break when operating.
  • The sprinkler without a plug will use the pipe as a plug, bury the pipe about 20cm deep into the ground so that the top sprinkler is sturdy.
  • Hanged sprinklers such as mist sprinklers will be fixed to the wall or truss with drawstrings, zinc, wall nails or screws, and jacks drilled into the wall.
  • The most special are the pop-up sprinklers, they are buried completely below the ground, leaving only about 2cm above so that the sprinkler can work properly.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is a sprinkler?

The sprinkler is one of the main components of an automatic irrigation system, which has the function of creating a jet of water or a curtain of water sprayed directly on the crops. The sprinklers come in a variety of spray patterns and configurations to suit different types of plants, and are connected to a plumbing system and a timer to perform automatic irrigation.

What specifications should be noted on the sprinkler?

In the process of selecting and calculating the sprinkler, we need to pay attention to 3 important specifications: operating radius, operating pressure and operating flow.

What are the most common types of sprinklers today?

The most common types of sprinklers today are divided into 3 types: dripper, spray sprinklers and mist sprinklers.

What types of pipes can the sprinkler be connected to?

Each type of sprinkler has a different structure. The barb type can bond with LDPE, PE pipes; thread type can bond with PVC, HDPE pipes. There are also adapters that can be linked to any type of hose.

What type of sprinkler is used to water vegetables?

Vegetables are often grown in high density and need to be covered full of water to grow well, so misting sprinklers or spray sprinklers can be used to water vegetables.